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发布于:2019-5-22 01:07:48  访问:29 次 回复:0 篇
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Had been scanned twice over a a single week period, both on pre-
Have been scanned twice over a one week period, both on pre- and post-contrast SWI images.SWI pre- and post-contrast experimentFigure 2 Multi-scale filter strategy segmentation steps are presented by: a) recovery of line structures of different widths, b) Hessian eigenvalues (i.e., linear intensity minima) Chelidamic acidPurity & Uridine 5‘-monophosphate disodium saltProtocol Documentation removal from the effects of non-linear structures and recovery with the original structures as PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162776 described by Sato et al., [26]c) removal on the effects of non-uniformity of contrast material, noise and artifacts, and d) 3-dimensionalitydiameters: < .3 mm, .3-.6 mm, .6-.9 mm and > .9 mm. As a 1st step, an upsampled map was generated, doubling the amount of voxels in every path inside the axial plane (from 768 ?576 to 1536 ?1152); consequently, at each and every iteration of your erosion and dilation procedure the vessels size was reduced or enhanced, respectively, by a voxel unit. By eroding and dilating the vessel mask and taking the distinction in the original vessel mask, the linear structures that have been a size smaller sized than the original voxel size (< .3 mm) were left (Figure 3). Iterating this process up to 4 times produced classification of the linear structures in the diameter classes < .3 mm, .3-.6 mm, .6-.9 mm and > .9 mm. At PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28045099 every iteration, a size filter was applied so that you can keep away from discontinuities in every single size-class map resulting from neighborhood inhomogeneities or larger noise level. As a mIP image is utilized for the underlying processing, the vein volume measurements, although correlating with all the actual vein volume in the brain, often improve vein visibility within the brain more than other structures. In distinct, this method enhances the visibility of smaller veins over larger ones, because the former are projectedIt has been reported that SWI venography might be additional enhanced through the injection of a contrast agent, generating improved sensitivity and image high-quality [28,29]. The volume of accumulated phase, and for that reason contrast, is proportional for the concentration from the contrast agent [25]. We previously reported in a pilot study that contrast-enhanced SWI drastically increases the quantity and volume of signal hypointensities on SWI venography in T2 lesions and in normal appearing WM (Figure four) [30]. In order to investigate the SWI VVV parameter variations in between pre- and post-contrast SWI moreover, 48 MS patients and 7 HC underwent each sequences within this study.Lesion and atrophy analysesT2 hyperintense, T1 hypointense and gadolinium lesion volumes (LVs) had been outlined using a semi-automated edge-detection contouring-thresholding approach [31]. Global and regional brain atrophy was determined with corrections for T1-hypointensity misclassification working with an in-house developed in-painting program, on the 3D T1 weighted scans utilizing SIENAX version two.six., as described previously [32].Statistical analysesStatistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 16.0). For descriptive statistics and estimates of CCSVI prevalence and its severity, t-tests, Fisher‘s exact tests along with the Mann-Whitney rank sum U-test had been used. Given that not all VVV indices have been ordinarily distributed, we employed non-parametric statistics. SWI venography differences among groups were assessed applying the Mann-Whitney rank sum U-test.
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